Time is kicking. Hope you guys are ready for Takao Cup.
Here’s the summary of NAH Ruleset v4.3. Or you can check our EN/CH full version.
We’ll bypass some technique issues according to our court or some items are too complex to follow.
【REFEREES & OFFICIALS 裁判與官方】
§1.1 – Referee 裁判
§1.1.1 – The Referee will maintain full control of the game for the duration, including stoppages. Any decision the Referee makes shall be final.
§1.1.2 – The referee will ensure that all equipment abides by §2.4 and §2.5; should any equipment fail to meet these standards the referee has the discretion to immediately stop play and restart only when that issue is resolved.
§1.1.3 – The Referee will be equipped with a whistle to indicate immediate stoppage of play as well as the start/restart of play.
§1.2 – Official Score & Timekeeper 計分及計時（助理裁判）
§1.2.1 – The official is at half court on the sidelines.
§1.2.2 – The official shouts out game–times at 2–3 minute intervals and after goals.
§1.3 – Goal Judge 邊審（球門裁判）
§1.3.1 – The goal judge is positioned behind the net.
§188.8.131.52 – If this position is not available, an alternative can be approved by the referee.
§1.3.3 – The goal judge returns the goal to its starting position if it is moved during play.
§1.3.4 – The goal judge may be called upon by the referee to provide perspective regarding a play near the goal. This interaction is purely consultative and the final call will be made by the referee.
【EQUIPMENT & FACILITIES 裝備與用具】
§2.1 – Players 球員
§2.1.1 – There are three players to a team.
§184.108.40.206 – While on the court, all players must wear a helmet approved for sports use.
§220.127.116.11 – Teams must wear matching colored uniforms, in contrast with the other team.
§2.2 – Court 球場
§2.2.1 – Courts are no larger than 155’ x 80’ (47.25 m x 25 m) and no smaller than 120’ x 60’ (37 m x18 m).
球場大小介於 47.25 x 23公尺，與 37 x 18公尺之間。
§2.3 – Goals 球門
§2.3.1 – Goals have nets.
§2.3.2 – Goals have a firm top crossbar.
§2.3.3 – Goalmouth will be 6’ (183cm) wide measured from the interior of the goalpostsr.
§2.4 – Bicycles 單車
§2.4.1 – The bicycle has at least one braking mechanism.
§18.104.22.168 – A fixed gear drive train with foot retention on both pedals qualifies as a braking mechanism.
§2.4.2 – The handlebars are plugged or capped.
§2.4.3 – There are no racks, fenders, bottle cages, saddlebags or other additions to the bicycle that may aid in blocking passage of the ball.
§22.214.171.124 – Wheel covers, which only cover the spokes of the wheel, are an exception to §2.4.3 and are permitted.
§2.4.4 – There are no sharp edges, points, loose screws, or otherwise unsafe componentry. This includes but is not limited to: exposed freewheels and cogs, exposed chain rings, and protruding axles.
§126.96.36.199 – If the part of the bike deemed unsafe can be reliably covered and secured, and approved by the referee, it will be an exception to §2.4.4 and will be permitted.
§2.5 – Mallets 馬球桿組
§2.5.1 – Shaft 球桿
§188.8.131.52 – The shaft is made of metal or carbon fiber.
§184.108.40.206 – The gripped end of the shaft is plugged or sealed.
§220.127.116.11 – The shaft does not protrude through the bottom of the mallet head.
§2.5.2 – Mallet head 球頭
§18.104.22.168 – The mallet head is made of plastic.
§22.214.171.124 – The mallet head is securely fastened to the shaft.
§126.96.36.199 – The mallet head is a maximum of 7” (180mm) in length.
§188.8.131.52 – The inner diameter of any hole on the mallet head may not exceed 2.25” (57mm). The maximum outside diameter of the mallet head may not exceed 2.559″ (65mm).
§2.5.3 – Dangerous mallets 危險球桿
§184.108.40.206 – The referee disallows the use of mallets that they deem dangerous. Examples of dangerous mallets may include: Mallets that splinter, shatter, or break easily, mallets with sharp protrusions, etc.
【TOURNAMENT & GAME FORMAT 賽事方程式】
§3.2 – Game Timing 比賽時間
§3.2.1 – Games will be played without intermission with the length of time as outlined in Appendix A: Tournament & Game Format 2014.
§3.2.2 – The winning team is the first team to be awarded 5 points, or the team that has been awarded the most points at the expiration of the allowed time.
§3.3 – Overtime 加時（驟死賽）
§3.3.1 – If a match in an elimination round is tied at the end of regulation time, the referee will blow the whistle to stop play and an overtime period will follow.
§3.3.2 – The teams will joust according to §4.1.
§3.3.3 – There overtime period will be sudden death. Play will continue indefinitely until one team scores to end the game.
【GAME MECHANICS 賽事進行】
§4.1 – Start of the game 比賽開場
§4.1.1 – Players are stationary, on their bicycles, with rear wheel touching the boards behind the net.
§4.1.2 – The ball is placed at the center of the court.
§4.1.3 – The referee asks each team if they are ready.
§4.1.4 – Once both teams signal that they are ready, the referee raises their hand then blows the whistle, dropping the hand simultaneously.
§4.1.5 – Once the whistle is blown, time begins and players ‘joust’ for advantage by racing for possession of the ball.
§4.2 – Stoppages of Play 暫停比賽
§4.2.1 – The game clock will stop in the case of a goal, an out–of–play ball or shifted goal position, extensive injury, a penalty, or a called time–out. The referee will signal a stoppage of play by blowing the whistle.
§4.2.2 – Following a stoppage of play, teams have 30 seconds to return to their respective half of the court and prepare to resume play.
§4.2.3– The referee will elicit a verbal acknowledgement that both teams are ready and the play will resume when either the ball or a player from the team in possession of the ball crosses half–court.
§220.127.116.11 – If the team with possession of the ball does not communicate that they are ready within the allowed time limit, they will be forced to use a time out.
§18.104.22.168 – If the team with possession of the ball has previously expended their time out allotment, possession will be forfeited to the opposing team.
§22.214.171.124 – If the team without possession of the ball does not communicate that they are ready within the allowed time limit, a minor delay of game penalty will be issued.
§4.3 – Ball out of Play 球出場
§4.3.1 – Out of bounds 球跳到場外
§126.96.36.199 – When the ball leaves the area of play, possession is forfeited by the team which last touched the ball. This includes deflections off of a player’s body or bike.
§4.3.2 – Lodged ball 卡球
§188.8.131.52 – A ball that is lodged in a player’s equipment is out of play.
§184.108.40.206 – Possession is forfeited by the team that had the ball lodged in their equipment and play will restart according to §4.2.3.
§4.4 – Goals 得分
§4.4.1 – A goal is awarded when the entire ball crosses the entire goal line after originating from a ‘shot’. A shot is defined in §5.2. A shot may subsequently deflect off of any surface except the broad side of an offensive player’s mallet head or the shaft of an offensive player’s mallet before crossing the goal line and be deemed a valid goal. A player may not actively direct the ball across the goal line using their body or bicycle.
§4.4.2 – A goal will also be awarded when the entire ball crosses the entire goal line resulting from active deflection of the ball by a defending player. These are known as own–goals.
§220.127.116.11 – If an offensive player shuffles the ball according to rule §5.3 and the ball then contacts a defender’s stationary equipment and crosses the goal line, no goal is awarded. Own–goals must meet the requirement of ‘active’ deflection by the defender.
§4.4.3 – Following a goal, the team that was scored on will have possession of the ball.
§4.6 – Injury 受傷
§4.6.1 – Stoppage of play for an injury is called at the discretion of the referee should they determine that a player is in need of immediate attention. There is no time limit issued for a stoppage of play in the case of injury.
§4.6.2 – Possession of the ball will be returned to the team that was last in possession of it.
§4.7 – Timeouts 暫停
§4.7.1 – During live game play, a team can call for a stoppage in play by gaining possession of the ball according to §5.1 and audibly yelling “Time Out” to the referee.
§18.104.22.168 – The team forfeits possession of the ball to the opponent.
§4.7.2 – During any stoppage of play, only the team that has possession of the ball for the impending restart may call for a time out in order to extend the 30 second time limit before play resumes.
§22.214.171.124 – In this case, the team does not forfeit possession of the ball to the opponent.
§4.7.3 – A team is granted two time outs per game of 2 minute duration each. A team is allowed to take these time outs sequentially if more time is needed at the end of the first time out.
§4.7.4 – At the expiration of the time limit, or when the team which called for the timeout declares they are ready, the game will resume according to §4.1.
§4.7.5 – If the referee deems that mechanical issues requiring repair on a player’s bike or equipment were caused by the opposing team, they will grant a time out to the team for up to five minutes. This will not count against the team’s time out allotment.
§4.8 – Shifted Goal Position 球門位移
§4.8.1 – If the goal shifts position, the goal line remains the defining threshold the ball must cross for a goal to be awarded.
§4.8.2 – The referee will stop game play if they determine that the position of the goal has shifted greatly enough to inhibit the goal judge’s ability to judge whether a goal is scored or it is apparent that the shifted position of the goal is affecting game play.
§126.96.36.199 – If the referee deems the goal shifted position due to circumstantial game play rather than intentional action by a player, possession is granted to the team that has possession or last had possession of the ball.
§4.8.3 – A delay of game penalty will be assessed according to §7.1 if the referee deems that a player intentionally shifted the goal to force a stoppage of play.
【BALL HANDLING 控球規則】
§5.1 – Possession 持球
§5.1.1 – The player who made the last deliberate touch on the ball will be considered to have possession.
§5.2 – Shooting 射門
§5.2.1 – A shot occurs when a player strikes the ball with the round end of the mallet head. If a player ‘pushes’ the ball rather than strikes it, the motion is deemed a shuffle.
§5.2.2 – Actively directing the ball into the net with any part of the body or bike is not a shot.
§5.2.3 – A shuffle (see §5.3) is not a shot.
§5.3 – Shuffling 推球
§5.3.1 – A shuffle is defined as any contact between a broad side of the mallet head and the ball.
§5.3.2 – A shuffle by the offensive team which enters the opposing team’s net is not a goal. In this case a restart occurs per §4.2.3. The team that shuffled the ball into the net forfeits possession.
§5.4 – Ball–jointing 扣球
§5.4.1 – Ball–jointing is defined as applying pressure on the ball using any hole or concave surface in the mallet head in order to trap it against any playing surface on the court.
§5.4.2 – Ball–jointing is permitted for a time period of two seconds anywhere on the court. Ball–jointing that extends beyond this time limit will result in a ball turnover.
§5.5 – Scooping 撈球
§5.5.1 – A scoop is when the ball is cupped in any hole in the mallet head using centripetal force and is maneuvered, whether it be on the ground or in the air.
§5.5.2 – Scooping is permitted.
§5.6 – Carrying 帶球走
§5.6.1 – Carrying is defined as picking up the ball and carrying it in the air, in any hole in the mallet head, with gravity providing the force which holds the ball in the mallet head.
§5.6.2 – Carrying is not permitted and will result in a ball turnover.
【PENALTY FORMAT 犯規形態】
§6.1 – Severity of Infraction 嚴重犯規
§6.1.1 – It is the responsibility of the referee to assess the severity of any infraction listed in §7 – §10 and issue a penalty that rectifies the disadvantage created by the fouling team.
裁判有責依規則§7 – §10所列情形，吹判嚴重犯規。
§6.1.2 – The referee may issue any penalty listed in §7 – §10 according to the severity of the infraction and the set of circumstances in which the infraction occurred.
裁判根據實際情形判以規則§7 – §10所列罰則。
§6.2 – Delayed penalties 延遲判罰（得益球）
§6.2.1 – All penalties listed in §7 – §10 will be called by the referee according to the delayed penalty procedure.
裁判依規則§7 – §10所列情形，宣告延遲判罰。
§6.2.2 – If the team in possession of the ball commits an infraction of the rules, the referee immediately signals the stoppage of play and issues the penalty.
§6.2.3 – If the team not in possession of the ball commits an infraction of the rules, the referee delays signaling the stoppage of play to issue a penalty until the team to be penalized gains control of the ball. This is known as a “delayed penalty”. The fouled team is considered to have “advantage”.
§188.8.131.52 – No goals will be awarded to the team to be penalized during a delayed penalty except own–goals by the team on the advantage.
§6.2.4 – The referee will signal the delayed penalty according to §184.108.40.206.
§220.127.116.11 – If the team to be penalized subsequently fouls the opponent while on the delayed penalty but the non–penalized team maintains possession, the delayed penalty will continue and the penalty will increase in magnitude by one degree.
§18.104.22.168 – If the non–penalized team subsequently fouls the opponent while on the delayed penalty, the play is stopped by the referee and the game will restart according to the procedure outlined in §6.3.
§6.2.5 – The penalty is not called if a goal is scored against the team to be penalized during the delayed penalty.
§6.3 – Coincidental penalties 雙犯規
§6.3.1 – Coincidental penalties are simultaneous penalties assessed to a member of each team.
§6.3.2 – Coincidental penalties at the severity level of a ball turnover will cause a stoppage in play and restart per §4.1. Coincidental penalties that would be assessed as a minor, major or game misconduct will result in a 2–on–2 situation for the prescribed duration of the penalties assessed.
§6.3.3 – After coincidental penalties are assessed, a start will occur per §4.1, with the exception that each team has two players on the court instead of three.
§6.3.4 – On–court manpower will remain 2–on–2 for the duration of the coincidental penalties, regardless of goals scored during this situation.
§6.3.5 – When the time for the coincidental penalties expires, the third player from each team will tap in at center court and rejoin play. No stoppage of play will occur.
【TYPES OF PENALTIES 罰則】
§6.4 – Ball Turnover 攻守交換（更換球權）
§6.4.1 – A ball turnover is issued when a foul has been committed but no clear scoring potential or opportunity has been taken away due to the infraction occurring in neutral positioning.
§6.4.1 – Possession will go to the fouled team and the game will restart according to §4.2.3.
§6.5 – Minor Penalty 次要犯規（中度）
§6.5.1 – An infraction that takes away a clear scoring opportunity or a distinct situational advantage from the fouled team will result in a 30–second man–advantage penalty.
§6.5.2 – The penalty will be called according to §22.214.171.124. Possession will go to the fouled team and the game will restart according to §4.2.3 with the following exception:
§126.96.36.199 – The player who commits the infraction will be removed from the court to serve the 30 second penalty. They will rejoin play and tap–in without a stoppage of play at the expiration of the 30 second penalty.
§188.8.131.52 – The penalty expires if the team that has man–advantage scores a goal. Play will restart according to §4.2.3.
§184.108.40.206 – If the penalized team is assessed an additional penalty, a restart will again occur as in §6.5.2. On–court manpower will remain 3 against 2, with the duration of the advantage extended to account for the subsequent penalty assessed.
§6.6 – Major Penalty 主要犯規（重度）
§6.6.1 – Any infraction listed in §7 – §10 that is overtly dangerous or reckless in nature will result in a 2–minute man advantage penalty.
主要犯規是指球員行為鹵莽危險，如規則§7 – §10 表列，罰以出場2分鐘。
§6.6.2 – The penalty will be called according to §220.127.116.11. Possession will go to the fouled team and the game will restart according to §4.2.3 with the following exception:
§18.104.22.168 – The player who commits the infraction will be removed from the court to serve the 2 minute penalty. They will rejoin play and tap–in without a stoppage of play at the expiration of the penalty.
§22.214.171.124 – The penalty does not expire if the team that has man–advantage scores a goal. The entire 2 minute penalty will be served. Play will restart, after the goal is scored, according to §4.2.3 with the penalized team retaining two players on the court.
§126.96.36.199 – If the penalized team is assessed an additional penalty, a restart will again occur as in §6.6.2. On–court manpower will remain 3 against 2, with the duration of the advantage extended to account for the subsequent penalty assessed.
§6.7 – Game Misconduct 行為失格
§6.7.1 – Physical aggression or an attempt to fight by a player who has dismounted from their bicycle, or a blatant attempt to injure another player through the use of physical force, will result in a game misconduct penalty.
§6.7.2 – If necessary to avoid escalation, the referee will immediately stop game play to end the altercation. Otherwise, the penalty will be called according to §188.8.131.52. Possession will go to the fouled team and the game will restart according to §4.2.3 with the following exception:
§184.108.40.206 – The offending player will be removed from the court for the remainder of the game and their team will play with two players.
§6.8 – Awarded Goal 送分
§6.8.1 – An infraction against a player in possession of the ball and facing an open goal that prevents them from scoring will result in a goal being awarded to the fouled team by the referee.
§6.8.2 – Play will resume according to §4.2.3 with the fouled team retaining possession.
【TECHNICAL PENALTIES 技術犯規】
§7.1 – Delay of game 拖延比賽
§7.1.1 – A delay of game penalty will be assessed in the following scenarios:
§220.127.116.11 – A player or team prevents the restart of play according to §4.2.
§18.104.22.168 – A player pins the ball with their bicycle while leaning against the boards, preventing other players from playing the ball.
§22.214.171.124 – A player intentionally scoops or throws the ball out of play.
§126.96.36.199 – A player shifts the goal according to §4.8.
§7.2 – Unsportsmanlike conduct 缺乏運動精神
§7.2.1 – An Unsportsmanlike Conduct penalty will be assessed when a player is judged by the referee to be behaving in an unsportsmanlike manner. Examples of this include:
§188.8.131.52 – General disruption of game proceedings or excessive protest of referee’s decisions.
§184.108.40.206 – Verbal or physical assault of a referee, goal judge, timekeeper, event organizer or any other player on the court.
§220.127.116.11 – Knocking or relocating an opponent’s dropped mallet in order to make it more difficult for them to recover.
§18.104.22.168 – Failure to tap out or leave the play after dabbing.
【BIKE HANDLING PENALTIES 控車犯規】
§8.1 – Dabbing 落馬敲邊場
§8.1.1 – A dab occurs when a player’s foot touches a horizontal surface other than their pedals.
§8.1.2 – A dabbed player must go to tap their mallet on the boards at half–court (on either side) before re–entering play.
§22.214.171.124 – A dabbed player is considered out of play and cannot be engaged with in any way. Physical contact, mallet play, bike contact or screening of a dabbed player will result in an Interference penalty.
§126.96.36.199 – A dabbed player is allowed a reasonable amount of time to withdraw from the area of play. However, a referee may assess a penalty if a dabbed player interferes with the game play in a way that results in an advantage for their team.
§188.8.131.52 – If a dabbed player blocks a shot on their own goal that would have otherwise crossed the goal line, the referee may award a goal to the shooter’s team. This is emphasized in regards to §8.1.3.
§8.1.3 – A player that leans against or grabs the goal with their hand for stabilization is considered a dabbed player.
§184.108.40.206 – The referee will verbally alert the player that they are dabbed. The goal judge can signal a dab according to §220.127.116.11. This player must tap out.
§18.104.22.168 – The referee may asses a penalty for cases of excessive grabbing or leaning on the goal.
§8.2 – Toppling 拖倒犯規
§8.2.1 – A toppling penalty will be assessed when a player causes an opponent to dab or crash in the course of their own dab.
§22.214.171.124 – Examples include: Jumping off of the bike while in the process of dabbing to check or impede an opposing player, initiating a pile–up by dabbing and forcing one or more defenders to dab in the process, following through on a check to the point where the player who initiated contact loses balance and dabs, taking down the other player with them.
§8.3 – Bike contact 單車接觸犯規
§8.3.1 – A player who uses their bike to initiate contact with the opponent or the opponent’s equipment will be issued a bike contact infraction according to §8.4–§8.6.
§126.96.36.199 – The referee holds discretion to call bike contact penalties for infractions not explicitly outlined in §8.4 – §8.6.
§188.8.131.52 – Incidental bike–on–bike contact is contact that doesn’t affect play and is not dangerous. No penalty will be assessed for bike contact deemed incidental.
§8.4 – T–Boning T撞犯規
§8.4.1 – A T–Bone penalty will be assessed when a player initiates contact with an opponent by using their front or rear wheel to carry momentum into the opponent in the direction of travel.
§8.5 – Tail Whip 甩尾犯規
§8.5.1 – A Tail Whip penalty will be assessed when a player initiates contact with an opponent by skidding or pivoting the rear of their bike to carry momentum into the opponent laterally or rotationally.
§8.6 – Sweeping 撞桿犯規
§8.6.1 – A Sweeping penalty will be assessed when a player uses their front or rear wheel to make contact with a stationary player’s mallet that is firmly established and planted on the ground.
【MALLET HANDLING PENALTIES 球桿犯規】
§9.1 – Slashing 掃桿犯規
§9.1.1 – A slashing penalty will be assessed on a player who swings at an opposing player’s mallet shaft or body with excessive force that has the potential to cause damage or injury, at the discretion of the referee.
§9.2 – High Sticking 高竿犯規（舉桿過高）
§9.2.1 – A high sticking penalty will be assessed when a player attempts to contact an airborne ball at a height above the nearest opponent’s shoulders.
§9.2.1 – A high sticking penalty will be assessed when a player’s mallet makes contact with an opponent’s head or neck.
§184.108.40.206 – Windup and follow through associated with normal shooting motion that extends above the height of the opponent’s shoulders is not subject to a high sticking penalty. Wild swings or blind backhanded swings that extend far behind a player are not considered “normal shooting motion” and will be subject to a high sticking penalty at the referee’s discretion according to proximity of other players.
§9.3 – Jamming 壓桿犯規
§9.3.1 – A Jamming penalty will be assessed when a player causes an opponent to dab by placing their mallet underneath the opponent’s front or rear wheel.
§220.127.116.11 – If the referee deems that the player rode into the mallet of an opponent, rather than a situation in which an opponent actively placed their mallet under the player’s wheel, no penalty is assessed.
§9.4 – Hooking 勾拉犯規
§9.4.1 – A hooking penalty will be assessed when a player hooks their mallet on an opposing player’s bike or body.
§9.5 – Throwing 丟桿犯規
§9.5.1 – A mallet throwing penalty will be assessed when a player throws their mallet.
§9.6 – Mallet Dropping 棄桿犯規
§9.6.1 – A player is only allowed to have one mallet in the field of play at any given time. If a player drops their mallet in the course of play, they must pick it up and are not allowed to use a backup mallet until the original mallet has left the field of play.
§9.6.2 – If a player’s mallet is broken, they may not drop it to retrieve another. They must immediately remove the mallet from play.
§9.6.3 – A mallet dropping penalty will be assessed if a player has two mallets in the field of play at the same time.
§9.6.4 – Should a player drop their mallet, they may continue play without it.
§18.104.22.168 – The referee will assess a mallet dropping penalty if the dropped mallet blocks a shot, causes a dab or, at their discretion, affects play in any other way.
§22.214.171.124 – Defensive players may move the mallet if the ability to defend goal is impeded.
【BODILY CONTACT PENALTIES 身體接觸犯規】
§10.1 – Extension 伸展犯規
§10.1.1 – An extension penalty will be assessed when a player extends their arm and uses their elbow, forearm or hand to initiate contact with another player. Principle physical contact must be made with the shoulder when engaging with an opponent.
§10.1.1.1 – A player may “tuck” their arm up close to their body in the initiation of contact. A penalty will result only if the player extends their arm upwards or outwards from the shoulder to initiate contact in a pushing, stabbing or punching manner.
§10.2 – Charging 衝撞犯規
§10.2.1 – A player that is initiating contact has the responsibility to meet the opposing player ‘high and even’. Contact to a player’s lower back, kidney or ribs or contact that carries momentum through an opponent from behind will be assessed a Charging penalty.
§10.3 – Interference 干擾犯規
§10.3.1 – An interference penalty will be assessed when a player initiates physical contact with an opponent who is not in possession of the ball. All players not in possession of the ball have the right to the space they occupy.
§10.3.2 – In the case of the ball leaving the immediate vicinity of the player in possession but having not been touched by any other player, the player considered in possession according to §5.1.1 can not be engaged physically if they have forfeited pursuit of the ball. An opponent may only engage in physical contact with the player in possession if they continue to advance towards the ball.
§10.3.3 – If the referee determines that a player is setting a ‘screen’, the opponent is allowed to contest the screen with physical contact subject to the rules outlined in §10 and no interference penalty will be assessed.
§10.3.3.1 – A ‘moving screen’ is defined as the active obstruction of an opponent’s movement to shield the ball, to block them from challenging the player in possession of the ball, or to prevent them from gaining a particular position on the court.
§10.4 – Holding 阻擋犯規
§10.4.1 – A holding penalty will be assessed when a player impedes the movement of an opposing player by holding (rather than blocking the path of) their mallet, body, or bike with their body.
§10.5 – Kicking 踢擊犯規
§10.5.1 – A kicking penalty will be assessed when a player kicks an opposing player’s body, equipment, or the ball.
§10.6 – Head Contact 頭擊犯規
§10.6.1 – A head contact penalty will be assessed when a player initiates contact with an opponent’s head or neck with any part of their body.
§10.7 – Handlebar Contact 車把接觸犯規
§10.7.1 – A handlebar contact penalty will be assessed when a player initiates contact with an opposing player’s handlebar.
§10.8 – Steering Arm Contact 操控手接觸犯規
§10.8.1 – A steering arm contact penalty will be assessed when a player initiates contact with an opposing player’s steering arm at or below the elbow.
§10.9 – Trapping 囚困犯規
§10.9.1 – A trapping penalty will be assessed when a player holds an opponent against the boards for an extended period of time, not near the location of the ball, by leaning on them or otherwise impeding their movement.
§10.10 – Flagrance 惡性犯規
§10.10.1 – A Flagrance penalty will be assessed when a player uses excessive physical force on an opponent who is deemed by the referee to be defenseless, or if the player initiating physical contact abandons the tactical or strategic application of force in a manner deemed by the referee to be reckless.
§10.10.2 – A Flagrance penalty will be assessed when a player initiates physical contact in an excessive nature such that they cause themselves to crash.